You are correct in assuming that there are different procedures in place. If you loose transmitting and can still listen, the controllers will ask you to ident with your transponder. This makes your target flash on their screen. Basically answering yes or no questions. If you can not send or receive then there are a list of things you must do.
The plane I fly has 3 VHF radios, 2 HF radios and a satelite phone. All are powered differently so that there is redundancy.
In short it would be very rare that a total communication blackout would occur.
PS Cell phones don't generally work above 10,000 feet.