Author Topic: CIRCLE TO LAND  (Read 1217 times)

Offline Roodbwoye

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CIRCLE TO LAND
« on: March 30, 2017, 10:33:58 PM »
If an aircraft is conducting a surveillance approach ending with a circle to land on a different runway and while on short final to the landing runway he waves off and requests to enter the down, can the local controller simply instruct this IFR aircraft to enter the down-wind?
- If the answer is yes, at what point is this aircraft no longer IFR?
- If the aircraft is IFR until landing what type of separation is the tower providing?
- What if the airport is IMC but above circling minimums?

I have researched FAA 7110.65W as well as AIM and CFR



Offline VASAviation

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Re: CIRCLE TO LAND
« Reply #1 on: April 03, 2017, 03:07:29 AM »
-It's not needed to change rules to perform a circle or a visual traffic pattern.
-It depends on the type of airspace the airport is. Separation with other IFRs, information about VFRs, etc.
-The flight is still IFR but conducting a visual approach. It's NOT VFR. If minimums allow that aircraft to perform a circle to land as you said, nothing goes wrong. Ceiling and visibility are to be watched when preforming a circle to land.

I hope this helps :wink:

Offline Roodbwoye

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Re: CIRCLE TO LAND
« Reply #2 on: April 08, 2017, 03:45:12 PM »
Thanks for your reply,
So if I understand your post, it is perfectly "legal" for a VFR tower to issue control instructions to an IFR aircraft other than "cleared for take-off?"

The 7110.65 specifically states that an aircraft conducting a visual approach has no missed approach and will be treated like a regular "go-around".  However, a circling maneuver (from a surveillance approach) is a radar approach and IFR separation is provided until the aircraft lands. Furthermore, the aircraft conducting the circling approach has either a published missed approach (instrument approach) or ATC issued missed approach (radar approach). 

a. When an aircraft is conducting a surveillance approach and is instructed to proceed visually (in accordance with directives) approach guidance is discontinued not radar service. Radar service is terminated when the aircraft completes the radar approach.

b. Radar service is AUTOMATICALLY terminated when arriving VFR aircraft receiving radar services request or is instructed to contact tower or change to advisory frequency.

QUESTION: When the aircraft commences circling and is instructed to contact tower, is he considered a visual approach?

7110.65W para 5-1-13: RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED
2. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual,
or contact approach has landed or has been instructed
to change to advisory frequency.

5. TERMINAL. An aircraft completes a radar
approach.

Offline tyketto

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Re: CIRCLE TO LAND
« Reply #3 on: April 10, 2017, 01:50:28 PM »
Thanks for your reply,
So if I understand your post, it is perfectly "legal" for a VFR tower to issue control instructions to an IFR aircraft other than "cleared for take-off?"

Just to be in the know, there really isn't a "VFR" tower. When you are referring to a field that is controlled, the meteorological conditions come into play. VMC (visual meteorological conditions) are when you can use VFR and IFR operations at that field; IMC (instrument meteorological conditions) are when you can only use IFR operations at that field.

With that, back to your question: Yes, it is perfectly legal for a tower in VMC to issue instructions to an aircraft operating under IFR other than "cleared for takeoff". Prime examples: Make left traffic, Make right traffic, enter left base, enter right base, enter left/right downwind, circle to land.

Quote
The 7110.65 specifically states that an aircraft conducting a visual approach has no missed approach and will be treated like a regular "go-around".  However, a circling maneuver (from a surveillance approach) is a radar approach and IFR separation is provided until the aircraft lands. Furthermore, the aircraft conducting the circling approach has either a published missed approach (instrument approach) or ATC issued missed approach (radar approach). 

a. When an aircraft is conducting a surveillance approach and is instructed to proceed visually (in accordance with directives) approach guidance is discontinued not radar service. Radar service is terminated when the aircraft completes the radar approach.

b. Radar service is AUTOMATICALLY terminated when arriving VFR aircraft receiving radar services request or is instructed to contact tower or change to advisory frequency.

QUESTION: When the aircraft commences circling and is instructed to contact tower, is he considered a visual approach?

No. If the pilot was cleared for an IFR approach (ILS, MLS, RNAV/GPS, VOR, NDB, etc.) with "circle to land", the pilot is still adhering to the IFR procedure the pilot was cleared for by the approach controller. The only thing that would change would be the radar service being terminated, as the pilot was asked to contact the tower. If the pilot were on a visual approach with Circle to land, he would be on a visual approach, which is still and IFR procedure.

Now, even if you take out the instruction to contact the tower, the approach procedure (again, including the Circle to Land) would still be an IFR procedure. The radar approach would end after the circle to land, as well as radar service.

BL.

Offline Roodbwoye

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Re: CIRCLE TO LAND
« Reply #4 on: April 23, 2017, 04:11:24 PM »
That is my understanding as well. So, if the circling aircraft is on final approach to the landing runway (not the runway the surveillance approach is being made) and has to "wave-off". The pilot request to enter downwind and the field is VMC. Can the tower legally instruct the IFR aircraft to enter downwind? Or would the aircraft have to climb to execute the ATC (approach control) issued missed approach?

I am of the understanding that unless the pilot cancels IFR, he would have to execute missed approach.

By the way. I am the control tower chief at a military airport with over 25 years of experience.

Once again. I thank you for your input.

Offline tyketto

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Re: CIRCLE TO LAND
« Reply #5 on: April 24, 2017, 01:59:48 PM »
That is my understanding as well. So, if the circling aircraft is on final approach to the landing runway (not the runway the surveillance approach is being made) and has to "wave-off". The pilot request to enter downwind and the field is VMC. Can the tower legally instruct the IFR aircraft to enter downwind? Or would the aircraft have to climb to execute the ATC (approach control) issued missed approach?

I am of the understanding that unless the pilot cancels IFR, he would have to execute missed approach.

By the way. I am the control tower chief at a military airport with over 25 years of experience.

Once again. I thank you for your input.

Good question here.. Let's throw an example up with this, and pursuant to what the .65 tells us. Assume the following setup:
  • Winds are out of the east/southeast, in excess of 15kts,
  • the airport has 2 east/west parallel runways. call them 7R/25L and 7L/25R. 25L is equipped with an ILS.
  • the airport has an operational ATC tower.
  • Runways 7 are in use. Landing 7R, departing 7L. The field is VMC.

An arrival unfamiliar with the area requests the ILS 25L approach. ATC clears him for the ILS 25L approach, circle south of the runway for a right downwind to runway 7R (7110.65, 4-8-6.b). Looking back at the chart for ILS or LOC 25L, the circle should begin upon completion of the approach, which should be at the FAF for that approach. So it would be at that point that the circle begins, or the MAP begins.

If the circle has completed, and the aircraft is on final, the approach procedure would have completed, so there wouldn't be a missed approach procedure. ATC would tell the pilot to go around and instruct them on how on their next procedure (711.65, 3-8-1), which would be to enter the downwind. As far as who issues the downwind instruction, that would be airspace dependent, as it depends on what class airspace the field is in.

BL.

Offline Roodbwoye

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Re: CIRCLE TO LAND
« Reply #6 on: May 01, 2017, 07:43:08 PM »
BL.
Thanks for your reply and thanks for the references. they were insightful.

We had an aircraft, on a circling maneuver,  wave off over the landing runway and requested from the tower to enter the downwind. The local controller put him in the downwind but the radar facility complained that the aircraft should've executed missed approach. The radar chief and myself (tower chief) presented our boss with references to support our cases which of course left our boss undecided. We are reaching our deadline to revisit the situation with our boss. 

I think I have enough information to advise my boss how to proceed with this issue.

Thank you for taking the time to help in this matter.

Offline tyketto

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Re: CIRCLE TO LAND
« Reply #7 on: May 08, 2017, 01:38:44 PM »
BL.
Thanks for your reply and thanks for the references. they were insightful.

We had an aircraft, on a circling maneuver,  wave off over the landing runway and requested from the tower to enter the downwind. The local controller put him in the downwind but the radar facility complained that the aircraft should've executed missed approach. The radar chief and myself (tower chief) presented our boss with references to support our cases which of course left our boss undecided. We are reaching our deadline to revisit the situation with our boss. 

I think I have enough information to advise my boss how to proceed with this issue.

Thank you for taking the time to help in this matter.

That's an interesting situation. Let's ask this.

Did the pilot going around notify the Tower that he was going around, or notify the TRACON/radar facility? If the latter, then he was still in the middle of his instrument approach, which the missed approach procedure would apply. But if he had already commenced the circle-to-land maneuver, he would (and should) have been handed off to you at the Tower, putting it in your airspace and command to keep the aircraft. the instrument approach procedure had already completed at the beginning of the circle-to-land maneuver. Because of that, there would no longer be a missed approach procedure to execute.

Definitely refer to the references in the .65, as from what I can tell, you are in the right in not needing to notify the radar facility. Again, this is all depending on the airspace of the airport. If the pattern altitude is below the TRACON's airspace floor, then they definitely would be in the wrong.

BL.