The hiring process is identical for everyone. You apply -- the next announcement is February 10th -- then the ones who are selected are put through a psyc evaluation, medical, security clearance, and AT-SAT aptitude test. If you pass all of these preliminary screenings, you are offered a class date at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City.
The next round of hires will not know where they are going after the FAA Academy. They will likely know whether they are going to a enroute or a terminal facility. The word is that facilities will be offered to be chosen by students based on their Academy performance. The better you do, the more choices you get.
You are able to transfer to other FAA facilities upon completion of controller training at your first facility. No new hires are sent to Class B facilities unless the Class B tower or approach control is less than what the FAA calls a Level 10 facility. 10s or higher require prior FAA experience in nearly every case. Levels are determined based on traffic and environmental complexity like runway configurations.
The current requirements to apply for the FAA ATCS opening in February is to have a high school diploma, 3 years of progressively responsible work experience or a 4-year degree, or a combination thereof. Having a 4-year degree provides extra points in the application process.